Death and dying are a bitter part of the reality of life, in general, and a particularly
common experience for those called to health care. The nature and meaning of death is
not simply biological or scientific, but rather involves deep philosophical and religious
questions. Once again, medical technology has changed the scope, quality, and
experience of death (or at least the dying process). It has even prompted a changing of
the very definition of death.
Death in the 21st Century
One of the incredible benefits of modern science and its application in medical
technology has been the ability to extend physiological life. In the 1960s, the
development of CPR, ventilators, and the like allowed never-before-seen intervention in
the process of dying, such that a millennia-old general understanding of what it meant
to be dead was transformed (Veatch, Haddad, & English, 2010, pp. 390-391). In the
field of biomedical ethics, the very definition of what it means to be dead is a
controversial topic. In continuing with a fundamental theme running throughout this
course, it should be noted that while the pathophysiological and scientifically detectable
signs of death are crucial in this debate, they should not be taken to be determinative or
comprehensive. This debate still crucially depends on the philosophical background of
ones anthropology (i.e., view of personhood) and in the resulting interpretation of
these scientific and physiological signs. The medical definition of death is not a purely or
irreducibly scientific question.
Worldview and the Meaning of Death
Two of the more controversial issues in bioethics are euthanasia and physician- assisted
suicide. As you read and research the ethics surrounding these issues, consider how the
Christian worldview would analyze the ethics of such actions. On a worldview level, the
question of the medical definition of death is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of the
broader significance and ultimate meaning of death. Whether or not there is any
meaning to death and what it might be is a question of ones worldview. Questions
regarding whether or not there will be ultimate moral accountability for the way one
lived life and whether there is an afterlife are key questions in this regard. The very
phenomenon of the loss of (at the very least) physiological and perhaps conscious
integrity and activity is a fact of life that calls for explanation.
Once again, an accurate understanding of religion and worldview is required.
Furthermore, the distinctions among each religion must be appreciated and not
collapsed into one another. The way in which both technology and religious background
color the experience and meaning of death (both in dying and grieving) must also be
appreciated. Whatever rituals or practices a religious or cultural group engages in are
informed by a view regarding the nature and meaning of death that fits within an
overarching worldview narrative.
Death in the Christian Worldview
Death takes on a particular meaning when seen within the Christian narrative. It is, in
fact, not the greatest evil that could befall a human being and is furthermore
transformed in the light of the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The Christian teaching that
God died essentially transforms the way in which death is seen and experienced
(Sanders, 2007, pp. 6-8). Death is certainly a tragedy and an evil, but it is now a
conquered enemy. It is a conquered enemy because in the Christian biblical narrative,
death is a perversion of Gods original design plan. And yet, the Christian God constantly
redeems that which is broken.
Loss and Grief
Death is a particularly traumatic and difficult experience for both family and caregivers.
Understanding the process and stages of grieving is immensely beneficial for caregivers
to assess the well-being of patients and families. There are numerous resources that can
be of tremendous benefit for both caregivers and family. One of the most influential is
the work of American psychiatrist Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. Perhaps the most influential
insight of her work was to notice certain patterns or stages in the human experience of
grief, especially after the loss of a loved one in death. She called these the five stages of
grief. Briefly, they include the following: (a) denial, (b) anger, (c) bargaining, (d)
depression, and (e) acceptance (as cited in HealGrief, 2016).
Expectations regarding an afterlife will in large part determine the manner in which
patients and families welcome or spurn the prospect of death. Furthermore, the way in
which a person experiences the stages of grief will be in the context of his or her
worldview. Christian theologian Nicholas Wolterstorffs (1987) memoir, Lament for a
Son, is a personal reflection of his own personal grief after losing his 25-year-old son in a
mountain climbing accident. As he engages with his own grief and experience, it
becomes clear that everything is ultimately seen in the light of Gods loving control and
the ultimate hope found in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
Why Did God Become Man? Incarnation, Atonement, and
Jesus was the Son of God before he was born into our world. The event of God taking on
flesh and dwelling among us the incarnation is amazing and is celebrated all over the
world at Christmas. The incarnation is proclaimed clearly throughout the New
Testament (Luke 1:35; John 1:14; Phil. 2:5-7).
So why did God become man? The most famous verse in the Bible clearly tells us, For
God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should
not perish but have eternal life (John 3:16 NIV). And Jesus knew what this would
require of him. He stated in Matthew 20:28, The Son of Man came not to be served but
to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.
God is both holy and just, so although he created humanity to be immortal, he could not
accept them into his holy kingdom in their sinful state. So from the beginning God
enacted and unfolded his plan for humanity, to redeem a people for himself (Titus 2:11-
14), requiring that justice be upheld and sin punished. Therefore, a sacrificial lamb was
needed one that could atone for the sins of the world. Only the perfect and sinless
Lamb of God would be sufficient. Yes, God himself would have to be the sacrifice
So the incarnation led inexorably to the cross, the torturous experience that had been
prophesied nearly a thousand years earlier by David in Psalm 22. All four Gospels give
vivid accounts of the crucifixion of Jesus, the most unjust execution ever to be carried
out, as testified by the centurion there who said, Certainly this man was innocent!
(Luke 23:47). But as unjust as the crucifixion was, Jesus willingly accepted it, for as the
Son of God he could easily have been rescued (Matt. 26:53). Instead, Jesus bore the sins
of the world on the cross. This is called the atonement the reconciliation of humanity
with God through the sufferings and sacrificial death of Christ.
It is interesting that the clearest account of the atonement is found in the prophecy of
Isaiah 53: 5-12 (NKJV) where the atonement is specifically stated seven times:
He was wounded for our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities and
the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all stricken for the transgression of
my people when his soul makes an offering for sin and he shall bear their
iniquities yet he bore the sin of many.
God went out of his way to make the extent he would go to bring about reconciliation
The resurrection of Jesus Christ is by far the climax of his life. .All four Gospels provide
vivid accounts of this amazing miracle that conquered death. There have been many
who looked at the history of the times, read the many accounts of what happened both
in the Bible and in other sources, and came to the inevitable conclusion that there is no
other explanation for what happened except that Jesus surely rose from the dead. After
the crucifixion, the disciples gave up and went back to fishing the 3 years of
exhilarating ministry were over. But then the resurrection changed everything. It was
not long before the disciples were accused of turning the world upside down (Acts
17:6). This world-changing event was not just a historical miracle, it was a sign of the
promise that God gave to those who put their faith in him. Death is a conquered enemy
because Jesuss resurrection from the dead made a way of salvation, and also was a sign
of the future that God has for those that have died in Christ.
The phrase in Christ is very common in the New Testament and crucial to
understanding the gospel. To be in Christ means to place your hope in Christ (Eph.
1:12), or in other words, making Christ the object of your faith. Paul expresses the
gospel message most succinctly in Galatians 2:16 where he says, a person is not
justified by works of the law, but through faith in Jesus Christ.
Christianity is unlike virtually every other religion in the world. Other religions show you
what they believe is a way to God by living in a certain manner, praying certain prayers,
and many other religious customs. Christianity teaches that people are not capable of
being good enough, which is precisely why God sent Jesus to be the Savior of the world.
Other religions offer good advice, whereas Christ offers good news, the gospelwhich is
that by trusting in what he has already done for you, you are restored.
Other religions offer possible salvation (eternal life in heaven) through trusting in ones
own good works, while Christianity offers certain salvation through trusting in Christs
good works. Paul makes this clear in Ephesians 2:8-9, For by grace you have been saved
through faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, not a result of
works, so that no one may boast (ESV). The final chapter in the biblical narrative will
involve a restoration of all creation, and those that died in Christ will be resurrected and
receive imperishable bodies.