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Part 1 Discussion #2: Visit the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) website. Explore the topic of risk maturity models. Write a 250- to 300-word response to the following: • • How are risk maturity models used as an enterprise risk management (ERM) performance scorecard? How could risk maturity models be used by organizational leaders to add value? Part 2 Student Responses: Student Response 1: Student response 1: Review the classmates’ posts and respond to at least one in a minimum of 150 words. Explain why you agree or disagree. Then, share an example from your professional experience to support your assertions. The article Developing a Hospital Disaster Risk Management Evaluation Model by Abbasabadi Arab et al. (2017) exemplifies a proper study with the following qualities: Characteristics of a good problem statement: A good problem statement should be clear, concise, and specific. It should identify a research problem, justify its significance, and explain why it is worth studying (Abbasabadi Arab et al., 2017). The problem statement should also be researchable, meaning it should be possible to investigate the problem through empirical research. Examples of evidence that support the significance of the problem: In the article, the authors cite several pieces of evidence that support the importance of the problem, including the increasing frequency and severity of disasters in hospitals, the importance of disaster preparedness and management, and the need for practical evaluation tools to assess hospital disaster risk management (Abbasabadi Arab et al., 2017). How the problem statement aligns with the research questions and contributes to professional knowledge and practice: The problem statement in the article identifies the research problem as the lack of a comprehensive evaluation model for hospital disaster risk management. The research questions about this problem seek to develop and validate such a model. The problem and research questions contribute to professional knowledge and practice by addressing a critical need in hospital disaster management and providing a practical tool for improving disaster preparedness and management (Abbasabadi Arab et al., 2017). The logical research purpose: The research purpose of the article is logical, as it seeks to develop and validate a comprehensive evaluation model for hospital disaster risk management. The purpose aligns with the identified problem and research questions and has clear, practical implications for improving hospital disaster management (Abbasabadi Arab et al., 2017). Characteristics of a good research question and how the research questions meet those requirements: A good research question should be clear, specific, and focused on the research problem. The research questions in the article meet these requirements by clearly stating the research problem and seeking to address it through specific and focused inquiries (Kaji et al., 2006). How the research questions tie directly to the purpose: The research questions in the article tie directly to the research purpose by seeking to develop and validate a comprehensive evaluation model for hospital disaster risk management. Each research question addresses a specific aspect of this purpose and is designed to contribute to the overall goal of developing a practical and effective evaluation tool (Abbasabadi Arab et al., 2017). How to revise or improve the research questions to support the scope of the study: One possible way to improve the research questions would be to provide more detailed guidance on the specific components of the evaluation model being developed. For example, the authors could provide more specific sub-questions related to each investigated evaluation domain (Abbasabadi Arab et al., 2017). How the research questions delineate the scope of the study: The article’s research questions delineate the study’s scope by focusing on developing and validating a specific evaluation model for hospital disaster risk management. Each research question is designed to contribute to this overall goal and provides a clear framework for the study (Abbasabadi Arab et al., 2017). Common themes or errors identified in the research questions: One common error in research questions is using overly broad or general questions that do not provide specific guidance for the research. Another common error is the failure to tie the research questions to the overall research purpose or problem statement. The research questions in the article avoid these errors by providing specific and focused inquiries that are directly related to the identified problem and purpose (Kaji et al., 2006). How the introduction explains the contents of the study, sets the stage, and provides a clear representation: The article’s introduction clearly explains the study’s contents by outlining the problem of hospital disaster risk management and the need for a comprehensive evaluation model. It sets the stage for the study by identifying the research problem, purpose, and questions and highlighting the importance of disaster preparedness and management in hospitals. Finally, the introduction represents what will be found in the remainder of the study by summarizing the research’s methods, results, and implications (Abbasabadi Arab et al., 2017). References: Abbasabadi Arab, M., Khankeh, H. R., Mosadeghrad, A. M., & Farrokhi, M. (2017). Developing a hospital disaster risk management evaluation model. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 11(3), 302–309. https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2016.91 Kaji, A. H., Koenig, K. L., & Bey, T. A. (2006). Surge capacity for healthcare systems: A conceptual framework. Academic Emergency Medicine, 13(11), 1157-1159. https://doi.org/10.1197/j.aem.2006.06.032 Student Response 2: Student response 1: Review the classmates’ posts and respond to at least one in a minimum of 150 words. Explain why you agree or disagree. Then, share an example from your professional experience to support your assertions. Protecting patients is the joint responsibility of health professionals and laws and regulations. Health professionals have a crucial role in providing high-quality care to patients and ensuring their safety by adhering to established standards and guidelines. At the same time, laws and regulations provide a framework for ensuring patient safety and quality care, holding health professionals accountable for their actions. In the case of A Never Event by McKnight and Bennington, the situation could have been different today with improved laws and regulations in place to protect patients. The case involves a medical error where a healthy patient received a fatal medication for another patient. The error was attributed to a failure in the hospital’s medication administration system, which allowed nurses to bypass critical safety checks. Since the incident, several laws and regulations have been implemented to improve patient safety in healthcare settings. For example, the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 encourages healthcare providers to report and share patient safety data voluntarily. It provides legal protections for these disclosures (Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act, 2005). The Affordable Care Act of 2010 also includes provisions to improve the quality of care and reduce medical errors, such as the establishment of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, which funds and tests innovative healthcare delivery models. Furthermore, the Joint Commission, a nonprofit organization that accredits healthcare organizations in the United States, has implemented new standards for medication management that focus on reducing medication errors. The Joint Commission requires healthcare organizations to establish systems for identifying and mitigating potential medication errors, such as using barcoding technology to match medications to patients and providing medication administration training to nurses (Joint Commission, 2018). While laws and regulations play a crucial role in protecting patients, health professionals also have an essential role in ensuring patient safety. Health professionals must follow established protocols and guidelines for medication administration and patient care to reduce the risk of errors (Thompson & Ardagh, 2015). They must also be vigilant in identifying and reporting potential safety risks and addressing them promptly. In conclusion, protecting patients is a shared responsibility between health professionals and laws and regulations. While laws and regulations provide a framework for ensuring patient safety, health professionals must also adhere to established guidelines and protocols to reduce the risk of medical errors. The incident in A Never Event by McKnight and Bennington highlights the need for continuous improvement in patient safety and the importance of implementing laws and regulations to prevent medical errors. References: Joint Commission. (2018). Medication management standards. https://www.jointcommission.org/standards/standard-faqs/medication-management(mm)/medication-management-standards/ McKnight, J. T., & Bennington, M. A. (2010). A never event: Exposing the largest outpatient clinic’s epidemic. Sentinel Watch, 2(3), 22–24. Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act, 42 U.S.C. § 299b-21 to 299b-26 (2005). Thompson, C. A., & Ardagh, M. (2015). Nursing practice and medication errors. British Journal of Nursing, 24(5), 263-266. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2015.24.5.263

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