Examine the influence of theoretical models and methods of assessment and planning in practice in the workplace

Unit 20: Care Planning Processes in Healthcare Practice

Unit code R/616/1661
Unit level 5
Credit value 15

Introduction
Quality healthcare is dependent upon clear and structured planning processes that will promote effective interventions and encourage critical review of standards of care. The healthcare professional will promote a person-centred approach by working in partnership with individuals and other professionals to assess positive outcomes from a period of care.

This unit will enable students to become familiar with care planning processes in their practice. Students will examine current models and methods of assessment and approaches designed to develop effective interventions and to promote review of practice based upon theoretical perspectives. Through this unit students will explore person-centred care planning at the heart of contemporary policy relating to the quality of provision in health and care services. They will develop the skills to implement these approaches, which are aimed at empowering people who use health and care services to plan their own futures and access the services that they need.

This unit will provide the student with skills in managing care and applying appropriate responses to needs assessment. They will be able to develop skills in using assessment tools and measuring outcomes based upon clear planning. This will enable the student to apply skills in practice or to healthcare related continuing higher education.

Pearson BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals in Healthcare Practice – Specification – Issue 2 – February 2018 © Pearson Education Limited 2018 290

Learning Outcomes
By the end of this unit students will be able to:

  1. Examine the influence of theoretical models and methods of assessment and
    planning in practice in the workplace
  2. Implement care plans in the workplace to meet desired outcomes for individuals
  3. Review the challenges and benefits of planning person-centred care in the workplace
  4. Reflect upon the impact of the planning of care on practitioners, individuals, family and carers in relation to own practice

Essential content

LO1 Examine the influence of theoretical models and methods of assessment and planning in practice in the workplace

Theoretical perspectives
Social care theory
Behavioural theory
Psychodynamic approaches
Solutions-focused and task-focused perspectives
Theories of change
Systems approach
Applicable principles of legislative and regulatory frameworks supporting
equality and diversity in the assessment process
Individualised care e.g. in the UK, the Care Act (2014)
Commissioning of Care
Referral, care and protection of individuals with additional mental health considerations
Promoting equality and diversity and the cultural implications for care and effective communication
Data Protection e.g. General Data Protection Regulations (2018), Data
Protection Act (1998)
Models of assessment
The Nursing Process (APIE- assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation)
Assessment, Systematic nursing diagnosis, Planning, Implementation,
Recheck and Evaluation (ASPIRE, Barrett et al, 2012)
Medical and social models of assessment
Care planning and the core care principles
Care pathways and care bundles
Individuals views are listened to and treated with respect
Evidence-based approaches
Updates on NICE or other public body guidance and other good practice as
applicable in own home nation
Care panning is done by appropriately trained and qualified professionals
Care plans are focused on recovery and promoting wellbeing
Staff use a compassion-focused approach
Pearson BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals in Healthcare Practice –
Specification – Issue 2 – February 2018 © Pearson Education Limited 2018 292
Care planning can take place in an appropriate and safe environment according to individual need
Care Plans are shared with everyone concerned
Individuals have an equal opportunity to be involved in planning care.
Care planning is sensitive to diverse needs, is produced in an accessible way
Those listed in the care plan have agreed to provide the service
Avoiding unwarranted variation
Types of assessment in health and care settings
Care planning, care pathways and care bundles, e.g.:
Care needs assessment
Outcomes based assessment
Risk assessment
Joint assessment
Face-to-face assessment
Structured interviews
Self-assessment
Evidence-based assessment.
Single Assessment Framework

LO2 Implement care plans in the workplace to meet desired outcomes for individuals

Roles and responsibilities
Duty of care
Provide appropriate care
Safeguarding and protection
Focus on the individual
Promote independence and empower the individual
Develop clear assessment methods
Develop strategies in partnership with the individual, family and carers
Follow the setting’s policies and procedures
Ensure records are kept accurately and safely
Maintain own training and update professional practice
Support other staff in team- including mentoring new staff
Listen to the individual and be supportive
Gain feedback on quality of care provided
Review and develop care plan in line with care planning process
Pearson BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals in Healthcare Practice –
Specification – Issue 2 – February 2018 © Pearson Education Limited 2018 293
Person-centred and holistic planning: person at the centre of the planning process
Person-centred approaches that are seamless and proactive
Support independence
Promote quality of life, e.g. the ability to contribute fully to our communities, tailored to the religious, cultural and ethnic needs of individuals
Promote value-driven practice based upon inclusiveness, respect and dignity
Focusing on positive outcomes and wellbeing
Working proactively to include the most disadvantaged groups
Approaches that take into account individual physical, psychological, public health, social, economic, spiritual and learning needs and considerations
Outcomes based assessment in care planning
Personalised care
Strengths based approach
Record-keeping
Data collection
Assessment tools
Types of interventions reflected in care plans:
Medical interventions
Social care interventions
Therapeutic interventions
Multidisciplinary approaches
Providing personal care
Hygiene
Meeting dietary needs
Cleanliness of the living and working environment
Supporting daily living activities
SSKIN (surface, skin inspection, keep moving, incontinence/moisture,
Nutrition/hydration) bundles approach to pressure ulcer prevention/care
Communicating with the service user throughout the care process
Involving friends and family, as appropriate
Referral and problem-solving
Pearson BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals in Healthcare Practice –
Specification – Issue 2 – February 2018 © Pearson Education Limited 2018 294
Use of risk assessment tools
Recognising norms and implications of deviations
Reporting concerns effectively
Checking measurements
Accuracy in recording
Interpreting results to inform care planning
Setting realistic targets to make improvements in conditions

LO3 Review the challenges and benefits of planning person-centred care in the workplace

Person-centred holistic approaches
Challenges:
Challenges of agreeing roles and responsibilities
Ineffective communication
Dealing with conflict
Poor care practices and unethical approaches
Complexities of taking into account the range of individual needs and
considerations in planning and provision
Availability of resources
Challenges around the resources, skills and facilities to ensure appropriate safeguarding, protection and respect for confidentiality
Challenges in obtaining consent
Feeling unsafe to raise concerns, or report incidents and accidents
Overcoming barriers to inclusion
Benefits:
Active participation of individual
Clear communication channels
Early identification of issues/gaps in service
Promotes teamwork
Guides provision of care
Allows for effective service provision
Allows for planning of services
Enables preventative practices
Pearson BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals in Healthcare Practice –
Specification – Issue 2 – February 2018 © Pearson Education Limited 2018 295
Partnership approaches and effective communication in resolving challenges:
Agreed ways of working in teams, clarity of roles and responsibilities
Agreed outcomes
Input from individual and family, friends and carers
Target setting:
SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, timely) targets
Risk assessment and risk-taking

LO4 Reflect upon the impact of the planning of on practitioners, individuals, family and carers in relation to own practice

Family and friends as partners in planning:
Valuing family and friends, importance of communication between individuals, family, friends and professionals
Consideration of what is important to the individual
Recognition of the individual as part of the family unit
Promotion of rapport with the individual, family, friends and professionals
Recognition of the right of family and friends to be involved
Provision of individualised care and support
Addressing issues which affect plans
Basing plans on an individual’s priorities in alliance with family, friends and professionals
Use of facilitators
Impact of care process on individual, friends and family:
Positive impact: reassuring, shared decision-making, feel involved and empowered, allows them to ask questions, they feel that they are being listened to, increased knowledge and understanding, they can recognise outcomes and work towards shared goals, gives structure and purpose to care processes, enables advocacy support
Features of ineffective engagement: intrusive, disruptive, time-consuming
Teamwork and leadership: processes and impact:
Leading the care process
Working in partnership
Supporting care teams, multidisciplinary approaches
Promoting best practice in the best interests of the individual
Reflective review, identifying gaps in service to improve
Collecting and interpreting data and drawing conclusions
Reviewing measures and terminating ineffective processes
Pearson BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals in Healthcare Practice –
Specification – Issue 2 – February 2018 © Pearson Education Limited 2018 296
Regulation and monitoring: benchmarks and standard setting
Critical incident analysis and serious case reviews
High-quality service provision
Improved job satisfaction and customer experience of the service
Supervision and management:
Review of practice, review of policies
Measuring outcomes, data analysis
Quality assurance, meeting regulatory standards, benchmarking.

Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria

Pass Merit Distinction
LO1 Examine the influence of theoretical models and methods of assessment and planning in practice in the workplace D1 Evaluate the influence of different theoretical perspectives on models of planning and assessment used in the workplace
P1 Compare the different models of assessment and their implementation in healthcare

P2 Discuss the application of theoretical perspectives to the care planning process in a healthcare setting

M1 Review how the legislative and regulatory framework that support equality and diversity is reflected in the assessment and care planning process
LO2 Implement care plans in the workplace to meet
desired outcomes for individuals
LO2 and LO3 D2 Critically review the challenges of developing care plans that meet the needs of the individual and their required outcomes
P3 Discuss responsibilities and duties of own role in promoting person-centred care planning

P4 Demonstrate own contribution to the care planning process and use of care plans in the setting

M2 Demonstrate the promotion of an individual’s holistic wellbeing through effective communication when implementing a plan of care in own workplace

M3 Review the application of risk assessment process in promoting personcentred planning in own workplace

LO3 Review the challenges and benefits of planning person-centred care in the workplace
P5 Discuss the barriers to implementing care planning in the setting

P6 Review the benefits of the use of care plans in ensuring the needs of the individual are prioritised

M4 Critically discuss the use of strategies developed to overcome any barriers to implementing care plans
LO4 Reflect upon the impact of the planning of care on practitioners, individuals, family and carers in relation to own practice D3 Critically reflect upon the planning process in relation to own practice in the healthcare setting

 

P7 Discuss the ways in which the individual and family contribute to evaluation of the care process

P8 Review aspects of the care planning process and their impact upon the individual, family and carers

M5 Critically discuss the importance of team work and leadership in developing supportive approaches for the individual and family in the planning of care

Recommended resources
Textbooks
BARRETT, D., WILSON, B. and WOOLLANDS, A. (2012) Care Planning: A guide for
nurses. Oxford: Routledge
HAYES, S. and LLEWELLYN, A. (2010) The Care Process: Assessment, Planning,
Implementation and Evaluation in Health and Social Care. Newton Abbot: Reflect
Press Ltd.
HOWATSON-JONES, L., STANDING, M. and ROBERTS, S. (2015) Patient
Assessment and Care Planning in Nursing (Transforming Nursing Practice Series).
Exeter: Learning Matters.
Reports and Articles
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH (2010) Essence of Care 2010: benchmarks for the
fundamental aspects of care. London: Department of Health.

Links
This unit links to the following related units:
Unit 1: Law, Policy and Ethical Practice in Health and Social Care
Unit 2: Demonstrating Professional Principles and Values in Health and Social Care Practice
Unit 3: Supporting the Individual Journey through Integrated Health and Social Care
Unit 6: Supporting Dementia Care
Unit 7: Effective Healthcare Practice using Maths
Unit 9: Anatomy and Physiology for Health and Ill-health
Unit 10: Developing Operational Management Skills for Healthcare Practice Pearson BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals in Healthcare Practice – Specification – Issue 2 – February 2018 © Pearson Education Limited 2018 300
Unit 12: Supporting Independent Living
Unit 13: Supporting Individuals with Specific Needs
Unit 15: Healthcare Technology in Practice
Unit 16: Supporting Adults in Residential Care
Unit 17: Effective Reporting and Record-keeping in Health and Social Care Services
Unit 19: Reflective Approaches in Implementing Person-centred Practice
Unit 26: Supporting Team and Partnership Working Across Health and Social Care Services
Unit 21: Recognising and Meeting the Needs of Individuals with Long-term Health Conditions
Unit 24: Health Psychology
Unit 30: Pharmacology and Medicine Management
Unit 31: Providing Outpatient and Community Care
Unit 36: End of Life Care Planning and Support

This unit maps to the qualification Practice Themes as below:

  LEARNING REQUIREMENTS (UNIT CONTENT) ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS (ASSESSMENT CRITERIA)
THEME 1: LAW, REGULATION AND ETHICAL PRACTICE LO1 M1
THEME 2: PROFESSIONAL VALUES, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS LO2 P3, P4, M2, D2
THEME 3: HEALTH, SAFETY AND SAFEGUARDING THROUGH THE LIFESPAN LO3 P5, M3
THEME 4: VALUING AND PROMOTING DIVERSITY, DIFFERENCE AND INCLUSION LO1, LO2, LO3 P1, P2, P3, P4, M2
THEME 5: PROMOTING PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH AND WELLBEING LO3, LO4 M4, P7, P8

 

Essential requirements
Case study material is essential and can be provided by the tutor or based on students’ work situations.

Delivery
Tutors must be appropriately qualified and experienced in the health and social care sector to cover the principles and skills development aspects of this unit.

Assessment
Students must be given time to develop their workplace experience, knowledge and understanding before assessment of this unit. They will be expected to present evidence based substantially on their work in health, care and/or support services. Evidence against practice-based criteria can be collated in the Practical Learning and Development Portfolio (PLAD).

Employer engagement and vocational contexts
A letter to employers that briefly outlines the Learning Outcomes of this unit may be helpful to support students’ workplace learning needs. An exemplar letter is given in the PLAD that accompanies this specification.

 

 

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