Explore the relationship between theoretical models of health education and health behaviour

Unit 5: Health Education in Action

Unit code A/616/1640
Unit level 4
Credit value 15

Introduction
Health education involves both giving information and training individuals and communities to bring about better health outcomes. This role is a key feature of the role of nurses and other healthcare practitioners. Additionally, health education is also a key focus for the government. The financial budget for health education has significantly increased in recent years due to its significant benefits to health outcomes. This unit will support the development of students’ knowledge, understanding and skills regarding providing and supporting the provision of health education to improve the health and wellbeing of individuals accessing healthcare services.

This unit will develop students’ understanding of the factors that impact upon health and the methods that are used to identify health inequalities at a local level. Students will also develop their understanding of the relationship between health beliefs and illness. Students will be able to assess how health beliefs can influence communication between healthcare practitioners and clients, and how to address barriers that may occur as a result.

Theoretical models using health education to bring about behaviour change will be examined and students will be able to use one such model to implement a health education initiative. They will also be able to understand and apply methods used to evaluate health education initiatives.

This unit will be of interest to those individuals wishing to pursue a career as a nurse, health advisor and in other healthcare-related professions where they will need to take part in health education initiatives.

Learning Outcomes
By the end of this unit students will be able to:

  1. Examine the factors influencing health status
  2. Investigate the impact of health beliefs on wellbeing and illness
  3. Explore the relationship between theoretical models of health education and health behaviour
  4. Implement a local health education initiative using a theoretical model of health education.

Essential content

LO1 Examine the factors influencing health status
Factors influencing health
Socio-economic factors
Gender
Culture
Education
Lifestyle
Environmental factors
Biological influence
The impact of ethnicity on health status
Personal beliefs
Barriers in accessing healthcare
Physical and mental disability
Culture
Communication barriers
Time
Income
Health beliefs
Past experience

LO2 Investigate the impact of health beliefs on wellbeing and illness
Health beliefs and illness
Attribution theory
Health locus of control
Risk perception
Unrealistic optimism
Self-efficacy
Relationship between communication with healthcare practitioners and health
beliefs
Respect and a shared understanding
Resistance
Lack of trust in practitioners
Communication methods

Communication skills
Environment in which the communication takes place
Appropriate timing
Culture
Lack of information and transparency from practitioners

LO3 Explore the relationship between theoretical models of health education and health behaviour Key concepts:

Health promotion: influencing the wider environmental, educational, sociopolitical and cultural determinants of health
health education: providing individuals and communities with information and giving them strategies to improve their health
Recognising these concepts are often used interchangeably in healthcare
Theoretical models used in health promotion and education
Stages of Change Model
Health Action Process Approach
Social cognition models:
Health Belief Model
Protection Motivation Theory
Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behaviour
Contemporary examples of health education campaigns using theoretical models. Campaigns selected must reflect local health education priorities and initiatives
With regards to e.g. Common diseases and conditions, safe sex, adherence to medication, smoking, diet, drugs, health screening, alcohol

Health improvement strategies used in different campaigns

LO4 Implement a local health education campaign initiative using a theoretical model of health education
Current local demographic data on health status
National Department(s) of Health (regional and local data)
National and International Public Health Bodies (regional and local data)
World Health Organisation (global and regional data)
The World Bank website (global and regional data)

Identifying a suitable health education initiative
Local health priorities
Previous and current initiatives
Involving healthcare practitioners and local communities in determining a
suitable priority
Planning an initiative setting objectives and selecting strategies
Aims
Objectives
Available resources
Timeframe
Financial implications
SMART targets
Strategies
Health models
Involvement of healthcare practitioners, carers and parents/families,
advocates
Implementing a plan
Resources
Timeframe
Role of practitioners
Evaluation methods used in health education campaigns and initiatives
Change in health awareness
Changes in knowledge or attitude
Behaviour change
Changes in health status
Self-evaluation
Feedback from others

Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria

Pass Merit Distinction
LO1 Examine the factors influencing health status D1 Evaluate the influence
of factors and health
beliefs in communication
strategies healthcare
practitioners in own
locality use to support
individuals to achieve
better health

 

P1 Compare a range of
factors that impact on
health status

P2 Explain potential
barriers service users face
when accessing
healthcare services using
examples from own work
placement

M1 Assess potential
measures to address
barriers service users
face when accessing
healthcare
LO2 Investigate the impact of health beliefs on wellbeing and illness
P3 Explain the
relationship between
health beliefs and illness
M2 Analyse a range of
factors that affect the
communication between
service users and
healthcare practitioners
LO3 Explore the relationship between theoretical
models of health education and health behaviour
LO3 and LO4
D2 Evaluate the success
of own health education
initiative and make
recommendations for
future health education
campaigns
P4 Compare and contrast
health education and
health promotion and
strategies used in each to
effect health improvement

P5 Describe how different
theoretical models are
reflected in different local
health education
campaigns

M3 Explain in detail how
different models of
health education have
been used to elicit
changes in behaviour
using contemporary
examples
LO4 Implement a local health education initiative
using a theoretical model of health education
P6 Explain the need for a
health education initiative
using current local
demographic data and a
relevant theoretical model

P7 Produce an accurately
detailed plan for a local
health education initiative
that addresses a current
local health issue

M4 Implement a wellplanned local health
education initiative that
addresses a current local
health issue

Links
This unit links to the following related units:
Unit 1: Law, Policy and Ethical Practice in Health and Social Care
Unit 2: Demonstrating Professional Principles and Values in Health and Social Care Practice
Unit 3: Supporting the Individual Journey through Integrated Health and Social Care
Unit 8: Addressing Health Inequalities
Unit 11: Changing Perspectives in Public Health
Unit 14: Sociological and Psychological Perspectives on Health
Unit 19: Reflective Approaches in Implementing Person-centred Practice
Unit 24: Health Psychology
Unit 26: Supporting Team and Partnership Working Across Health and Social Care Services
Unit 28: Holistic Approaches to Health Promotion
Unit 34: Global Health and Wellbeing
Unit 35: Project Management for Healthcare

This unit maps to the qualification Practice Themes as below:

  LEARNING REQUIREMENTS (UNIT CONTENT) ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS (ASSESSMENT CRITERIA)
THEME 1: LAW, REGULATION AND ETHICAL PRACTICE LO2
LO4
M2, D1
M4, D2
THEME 2: PROFESSIONAL VALUES, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS LO1-LO4 P1-P4, M1-M3, D1
THEME 3: HEALTH, SAFETY AND SAFEGUARDING THROUGH THE LIFESPAN LO1-LO4 P1-P8, M1-M3,

D1-D2

THEME 4: VALUING AND PROMOTING DIVERSITY, DIFFERENCE AND INCLUSION LO1-LO4 P1-P8, M1-M3,

D1-D2

THEME 5: PROMOTING PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH AND WELLBEING LO1-LO4 D2

Essential requirements
Case study material is essential and can be provided by the tutor or based on students’ work situations.

Delivery
Tutors must be appropriately qualified and experienced in the health and social care sector to cover the principles and skills development aspects of this unit.

Assessment
Students must be given time to develop their workplace experience, knowledge and understanding before assessment of this unit. They will be expected to present evidence based substantially on their work in health, care and/or support services. Evidence against practice-based criteria can be collated in the Practical Learning and Development Portfolio (PLAD).

Employer engagement and vocational contexts
A letter to employers that briefly outlines the Learning Outcomes of this unit may be helpful to support students’ workplace learning needs. An exemplar letter is given in the PLAD that accompanies this specification.

 

 

 

 

 

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