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May 01, 2023 Answer: Annotated Bibliography Di Simone, E., Giannetta, N., Auddino, F., Cicotto, A., Grilli, D., & Di Muzio, M. (2018). Medication errors in the emergency department: Knowledge, attitude, behavior, and training needs of nurses. Indian journal of critical care medicine: peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine, 22(5), 346. The above scholarly article by Di Simone et al. (2019), focuses on the issues of medication errors in nursing that has become a topic of debate due to the high prevalence of cases, and millions of people die each year due to medication errors in emergency, and acute care units. This research focuses on the medication errors in emergency departments and the attitude, behavior, and knowledge of nurses. This research is based on the university hospital in Rome where 103 nurses participate in the study. Anonymous methods if the questionnaire has been used to asked multiples questions form nurses about the issues of medication errors including, causes, consequences, and requirement to prevent the issues. The study has revealed that nursing education and training, including positive attitude and behavior, are essential to prevent these errors. This study is reliable as a similar result has been observed in other studies focusing on nursing education. This study also found that these multiple reasons in the hospital or other clinical facilities can be associated with medication errors. However, in the emergency department, it is related to some specific factors frequency of the alarming system in Eds, high numbers of patients in Eds that can be challenging tackle for certain numbers of nurses. The clinical environment and complexities of work can be the leading cause of stress in nursing that also led to medication errors. Hence, this research has found that reducing stress, and making a positive work environment can reduce errors in nursing, for example, a computerized prescription could reduce manual activities while at the same time it is effective to reduce drug preparation errors. To achieve efficiency in implementation it is necessary to educate the nurse about changes through training, poster, and broachers. Gorgich, E. A. C., Barfroshan, S., Ghoreishi, G., & Yaghoobi, M. (2016). Investigating the causes of medication errors and strategies to prevention of them from nurses and nursing student viewpoint. Global journal of health science, 8(8), 220. This article has been published in the Journal of Health and Science that also focuses on the seriousness of medication errors in nursing, causes, and strategies to prevent them. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the hospital of Iran where 327 nurses have participated. Finding from the study have revealed that workloads that cause tiredness, fatigue, and stress among nurse students and professionals are the leading cause of medication errors. In the student’s point of view, the effective way to reduce those errors is to reduce the workload and pressure of work, however, it has been also found that there is a significant link between the mean of medication errors and types of wards. Medication errors can occur in any ward within the hospital including the emergency ward, acute care, and disease-specific unit for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer care unit. The patient required different health experts to care accordingly, however, patients with multiple diseases require more frequent attention and multiple medications. In those cases, nurses need to manage all types of medications which is a tough job, however, when a nurse asked to support in other tasks during the absence of the staff it becomes difficult to manage their own work for them, in such a stressful situation they expose to the errors. Medication errors incorporate giving wrong medication at any phase of the treatment interaction that is preventable. Medication administration is one of the main complexes and most essential parts of nursing care and it needs the right information and capacity of attendants. Medicine-related errors can have unwanted ramifications for patients, for example, increased hospital stays, expanded expenses of hospitalization, incapacity, doubt in the medical services, extreme injury, or even death. Execution of medicine orders is a significant piece of the course of treatment and care of patients and it`s considered as a significant part of nurse’s function, meanwhile, understanding wellbeing has a specific significance. Thus, it is suggested that managers and leaders settle the HR issue, give studios and in-service training about getting ready for medication administration, symptoms of medications, and pharmacological information. Utilizing electronic drugs cards is an action that diminishes these errors.

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