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May 01, 2023


Two-Tier Health Care System

It is a government given primary healthcare system that gives general caring facilities and the secondary tier helps those who can pay for better quality health care. There exist different thoughts about two-tier systems. Supporters believe that people who have access to means must be allowed to have access to whatever health services they want. The opposite opinion on the same topic is that this access to healthcare must be based on needs of patients rather than their ability to pay.


Out of numerous reform models to get to universal coverage, Canada has a logical approach in form of single-payer system (University of Ottawa Press, 2020). In Canada, the single monopoly government broker is responsible for providing coverage to whole population. Every Canadian is entitled to even distribution of benefits of insurance with minimal patient cost-sharing. The main advantage of this system is reduced administrative charges and the insurer gets the maximum of bargaining power negotiating with providers; this keeps the healthcare costs very low in Canada.


In the two-tier healthcare system, the private clinics tend to increase the waiting time in 99% of cases. The quality of care in these clinics is very inferior and they are very less efficient, as they cost more and deliver very less. Patients are asked to pay more by taxes and out-of-pockets.

Universal Health Care System

 Health care system in Canada is not free as people are to pay monthly or yearly premiums including the taxes that pay for Canada’s entire system of health care. People have complete access to health care facilities regardless of their status, income, or age. Health care administration is done on provincial basis in Canada.


Everyone getting total access to healthcare is the best advantage of universal health care system (Naylor, Boozary, & Adams, 2020). A Canadian will always receive good level of health care in the country. Unemployed, disabled, and even pensioners can get quality health care. As it is administered by Canadian government, their focus is to improve the overall health of its citizens. Everyone gets a health insurance and no person could go bankrupt from medical charges. On a federal level, this system lowers the costs of health care for national economy. This happens because the cost and medications are controlled by the government. In this system, there is an assurance of equality in services and no doctor or hospital administration will be able to target wealthier clients. It means that every patient is treated equally and gets same health care facilities that eventually lead to balanced and healthier workforce (Burke, et al., 2018).


The main criticism that this system faces is that in this the overall quality of healthcare is declined. Another point of negativity is that the patients here must wait for very long time or sometimes even months. Government always focuses on giving essential care facilities and sometimes may ignore rare diseases or optional measures. The cost of this health care is very high, and many of the citizens may not be able to afford them.

Importance Of Nursing In Breastfeeding In Infant

Breastfeeding is the process by which the breast mild is fed to the infant, the process either takes place either directly from the breast or pumped to the infant to feed them. According to world health organization (WHO) it is essential for new born babies to breast fed for initial six months of life time. It is recommended that the baby should be fed the first breastfeeding in first hour after birth (World Health Organization, 2018). He breast-feeding should be done 8-12 times a day in the first month of life. In the beginning the process of breast feeding lasts for the period of 30-45 minutes as baby solely learns the process of sucking, swallowing, and breathing. Well known health organizations including WHO suggests breastfeeding for 6 months for every infant considered to be very essential. No other food items and drinks should be given. Even after giving other food items after six months, it is recommended to the mothers to continue with the breastfeeding for 1 year or more (Organization, 2021).

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