sbm 1300: To Evaluate Strategies for Managing Waste in Small Island Countries –

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1IICH Project Title: To evaluate strategies for managing waste in Small Island Countries Research Background and Justification:

Waste management is relatively a new factor in the small islands of the countries. The success of waste management has been endangered by the various social risks linked with the inadequate inclusion of the people in decision making on the management of waste. Small Islands are a different group of developing nations with very certain social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities. According to the United Nations, there are 52 such nations situated in the Caribbean, the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Indian Ocean and many more. The application of waste management in the small islands of the developing nations is a critical task as it has a direct effect on the state of the environment, the health of the individuals and on the economy. Some unique challenges are faced by the small islands with respect to the waste management. These challenges include small population which restricts the potential economies of the scale, limited human resources capacity, availability of the limited suitable land on the small islands and many more. On the other hand, the poor practices of waste management impact negatively on the health, environment, and economy of the small islands in various ways (


Mackey and Gass, 2015




In the context of the research problem, the present investigation will pay attention to the challenges faced by the small island nations for developing efficient strategies to handle and manage them. This investigation will provide information about the waste management in the small islands. This report offers an opportunity to understand the issues regarding waste management and implement the most effective approaches for managing it properly (


Fletcher, 2017




Research Objectives and Research Questions:

Research Objectives: 

  • To understand the concept of waste management


  • To analyze the challenges faced in managing waste by the Small Island Countries


  • To identify the issues faced for poor waste management by the Small Island Countries


  • To evaluate the strategies for managing waste in small island countries


Research Questions:

  • What is the concept of waste management?


  • What are the challenges faced in managing waste by the Small Island Countries?


  • What are issues faced for poor waste management by the Small Island Countries?


  • What are the strategies for managing waste in small Island Countries?


Literature Review

Waste Management:

According to


Zorpas and, 2015


, “The process which includes different activities and actions which are required for managing the waste from its inception to its final disposal is called as waste management”. The processes consist of the collection, transport, treatment, and disposal of the waste along with the proper monitoring and regulation. The legal and regulatory framework is followed by the waste management departments for recycling the waste and producing something important and useful from it.  Along with this


Eckelman and, (2014


), have said that “Waste can be in any form i.e. solid, liquid or gas and each type has its own methods of disposal and management”. Usually, waste management deals with all forms of waste i.e. if it is generated from the industries or from the household works.


Agamuthu and Herat, (2014


), have identified that “The purpose of waste management is to minimize the adverse impact of waste on the health of the individuals, surrounding or aesthetics”. For developing a safe and secure environment for the society, nations are working for managing their waste effectively by using latest techniques and ways. However, practices for waste management are not uniform among the small island nations. In addition to it


Laurent and, (2014)


, have demonstrated that “A lager part of the waste management practices works in the area of solid waste which is in bulk and created by household, industrial and commercial activities”.

Challenges faced by Small Island Countries: Limited Land:

As per the view of


Brunner and Rechberger, (2015)


, “Waste Management needs a large part of the suitable land for disposing the hazardous waste and recovering it through natural and man-made processes”. Small Islands posses limited space and due to this, it is a challenge for them to find out suitable land for the waste management. It is necessary to dispose of waste on the land which can not the recycled through machines or other processes. In such case, the government of the small islands faces problem in getting the appropriate land for disposing of the waste. Along with this


Butera, Christensen, and Astrup, (2015)


, have stated that “There are different methods for land disposal unit: Landfill, waste pile, land treatment unit, injection well, surface impoundment and many more”. These methods are useless for the islands due to the lack of proper land for waste management.

Lack of political support:

Soltani and, (2015)


, have said that “Implementation of proper strategies for managing waste needs money, appropriate policies, and proper political support”. Due to the lack of appropriate finance, the government of the Small Island Countries used to ignore the factor of waste management. The political parties are paying attention to enhance the economy of the islands for their betterment and growth. Due to the insufficient government priority, it is a challenge for the small island countries to manage their waste properly. On the other hand,


Wilson and, (2015)


, have stated that “Waste management needs awareness, adequate information and proper planning which is not present among the political parties”. Due to the lack of problems improper waste management can create, lack of skilled employees and awareness, the government is incapable of thinking about managing the waste and handling the issues.

Limited Human resources:

Bing and, (2016)


, have demonstrated that “Small islands possess limited population along with all the necessary skill and information”. Lack of skilled and talented workers result to improper long term planning for the waste management. The systems for managing waste require proper analysis and planning which can do only under the guidance of the experienced and talented staff. So, it is also an issue to analyze the current situation and plan accordingly for waste management in the limited number of employees.

Issues due to the poor waste management: Environmental Issues:

As per the view of


Butera, Christensen, and Astrup, (2015)


, “Waste management helps in creating a safe, secure and clean environment to live a healthy and prosperous life”. Lack of waste management in islands affect the surroundings and create various diseases for individuals. Waste in air, water and land results to create air, water, soil and land pollution which is not good for the people living in the nation. Along with this


Astrup and, (2015)


, have said that “Governments are working for keeping the environment safe and sustainable”. Lack of governmental support is affecting the surrounding, fresh air, greenery and fresh water of the islands which is resulting to create a problem for both animals and human beings.

Health Issues:

Mohee and, (2015)


, have demonstrated that “Waste management leads to stop disease causing germs and decreases the chances of causing diseases”. Improper waste management in the small islands increases the number of diseases which affects the health of individuals. Pollution in air, water, land, etc leads to create various dangerous health issues which are difficult to cure. Thus, for the better health of the people, it is necessary to manage the waste and dispose or recycle it in the most appropriate way.

Strategies for managing waste: Programs to raise awareness:

Robinson, (2017)


, has said that “Small Island countries possess a lack of information and awareness with respect to the waste management”. In context to this, the government of the islands needs to conduct various programs for developing awareness regarding the waste management among the people. Proper information about the ways individuals can manage their waste and the problems they can avoid it will help in improving the environmental conditions of the nation. Apart from it, private companies can also start programs as corporate social responsibility for developing a society of the small islands.

Self-sustaining solid waste system:

Duhec and, (2015)


, have stated that “Solid waste is one of the major parts of the waste management system which needs proper recycling and disposal techniques”. Government funding can result to develop a self-sustaining solid waste system in the island nations. This system will reduce the need for land for disposal and human resources. Apart from it, the self sustaining solid waste system will help in reducing the number of diseases causing due to improper management of the solid waste.


Thus, with the help of the above strategies, Small Island countries will able to handle their present situation with respect to the waste management.



Research methodology consists of the methods which help scholar in collecting the relevant data and conducting the data analysis properly for achieving the desired objectives of the study (


Lewis, 2015




Research Philosophy of the research methodology includes two types of philosophy positivism and intervitism. Out of the two philosophies, the author will use positivism research philosophy. Data analysis will be conducted by the scholar by using logical and mathematical proof. On the other hand, the investigator will use deductive research approach for creating the hypothesis as per the pre-existing theory and developing the research strategy for further testing of the hypothesis. Apart from this, the subject of the present study moves from specific to general, so deductive approach is a suitable one. In the context of the research strategy, both qualitative and quantitative research strategy will be used by the author for accomplishing the objectives of the present research. Literature and questionnaire will be used by the scholar for evaluating the strategies to manage the waste in the small island countries of the world (


Smith, 2015




Apart from this, the research design for the investigation includes exploratory research design. Under the selected design, the investigator will able to conduct questionnaire and analyze the collected data effectively for identifying the appropriate responses of the research questions. In the end, due to the qualitative and quantitative nature of the current investigation, the author will use both thematic and statistical methods for analyzing the collected data and accomplishing the objectives i.e. strategies for managing the waste in the small island nations (


Choy, 2014




Data Collection Method:

The process of collecting data relevant to the subject of the study is called as data collection method. There are two types of data collection method which includes: Primary data collection and Secondary data collection. For the current study, the author will use both primary and secondary data collection method for gathering both qualitative and quantitative information. In the context of the primary data collection, the scholar will use a questionnaire for gathering the original information about the waste management of the small islands from the municipal department of the small Island countries. The questionnaire will include a list of questions relevant to the subject of the research for accomplishing the predefined objectives. On the other hand, in secondary data collection method, the investigator will use books, journals, previous studies, business magazines, reports of the United Nations, World Health Organization (WHO), etc concerning to the waste management, websites and many more. These sources will help in collecting previously analyzed information for understanding the present problem regarding waste management in small islands and evaluating the appropriate strategies for handling it (


Fletcher, 2017



Data Collection Instrument



Q1. Are you aware of the importance of waste management?


  • Yes


  • No


Q2. Do you have different departments for managing the waste at Island?


  • Yes


  • No


Q3. Is your department facing any issue in implementing effective waste management at the Island?


  • Agree


  • Neutral


  • Disagree


Q4. If agree, then what are the major challenges your department is facing in managing waste on the Island?


  • Limited Land


  • Inadequate budget


  • Lack of political support


  • Limited Human Resources


Q5. What are the impacts of poor waste management on the Island?


  • Increase in the number of diseases


  • Increase in pollution


  • Increase in harm to the animal and marine life


Q6. Do you have strict rules and regulations for managing waste at Island?


  • Yes


  • No


Q7. What type of functions handled by you and your department for managing waste?


  • Street Sweeping


  • Maintaining sanitation


  • Procurement of the vehicles


  • Landfill operation


Q8. What efforts are needed for increasing waste management at Island?


  • Public education


  • Training to the waste management staff


  • Implementation of various programs and projects


  • Recruitment of the highly talented and skilled employees in the department


Specific Requirements

It will follow all the ethical considerations for conducting the research properly without breaching any law regarding plagiarism, the privacy of the respondents, etc. Along with this, the scholar will conduct the entire investigation in the available resources like internet, books, etc and provided a time period for maintaining its quality.

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