Role of public health and social care is to raise learners’ awareness of factors influencing public health and the different approaches to reduce incidence of disease and illness in communities. Learners investigate the roles of different agencies working to reduce the incidence of disease and illness. They will investigate infectious and on-infectious diseases widespread in their own country and analyse the effectiveness of strategies to control the incidence of disease. Regional, national and international perspectives and priorities will be considered. This will be followed by investigating the health and social care provision that is available and then analysing factors that influence the wellbeing of individuals within a care setting.
A growing body of research is revealing the long-term impacts that experiences and events during childhood have on individuals’ life chances. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) such as abuse, neglect and dysfunctional home environments have been shown to be associated with the development of a wide range of harmful behaviours including smoking, harmful alcohol use, drug use, risky sexual behaviour, violence and crime. They are also linked to diseases such as diabetes, mental illness, cancer and cardiovascular disease, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and ultimately to premature mortality.
In 2012, the Centre for Public Health ran the first UK study using internationally validated ACE tools in Blackburn with Darwin (BwD; Bellis et al, 2014a). This found that increasing ACEs were strongly associated with adverse behavioral, health and social outcomes across the life course. The key objectives of the study are to measure the prevalence of ACEs, the increased odds of morbidity and mortality in adulthood from the number of these and the proportion of health- harming behaviours and health outcomes that could be prevented if ACEs were reduced.
In 2013/14 a Routine Enquiry into Childhood Experience (REACh) training programme was developed and piloted among universal and targeted services individually in the borough of BwD (McGee et al., 2015). Briefly, the REACh training was designed to increase service providers’ awareness of ACEs and encourage practitioners to embed routine enquiry into daily working practices. The pilot work in the borough of BwD is currently being developed into a multi-agency (rather than individual agency) REACh training programme for services within the East Locality Transforming Lives partnership. The multi-agency REACh training seeks to create a sustainable model so that line mangers (rather than trainers) can support frontline staff to undertake routine enquiry and respond appropriately to disclosures. BwD Public Health has commissioned the Centre for Public Health to undertake an evaluation to explore the impact of a multi-agency REACh training programme on participant knowledge and confidence in asking and responding to disclosures, as well as its impact on working practices among services within Transforming Lives.
1.1 Explain the roles of different agencies in identifying levels of health and disease in communities. (Local, national, international agencies e.g. local authorities, health trusts, government, European Union, World Health Organization, voluntary organizations).
1.2 Explain, using statistical data, the epidemiology of one infectious and one non-infectious disease that is widespread in their own country.
1.3 Evaluate the effectiveness of different approaches and strategies to control the incidence of disease in communities (diseases or conditions can be chosen from above mentioned case study). (Approaches and strategies: surveillance, screening, immunization, education, legislation, social welfare, environmental controls).
2.1 use relevant research to determine current priorities and approaches to the provision of services for people with disease or illness.
2.2 Explain the relationship between the prevalence of disease and requirements of support services within health and social care service provision.
2.3 Analyse the impact of current lifestyle choices on future needs for health and social care services.
3.1 Assess the health and wellbeing priorities for individuals in a particular health or social care setting.
3.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies, systems and policies in a health or social care setting.
3.3 Discuss changes that could be made to improve the health and wellbeing of individuals in a health or social care setting.