What are the common tools used to protect against a DoS (Denial of Service) or DDoS (Distributed Denial-of-Service) attack?

What are the common tools used to protect against a DoS (Denial of Service) or DDoS (Distributed Denial-of-Service) attack?

-What is malware and how does it spread?

-What are some of the tools that a hacker can use to crack passwords?

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