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  1. Body: This is the main part of the report
    • Introduction (page numbered in Arabic numeral, Page1),
    • Materials and method
    • Results
    • Discussion, conclusion and/recommendations,
    Post: This concludes the report and provides further information
    • References
    • Appendices (abbreviations used, additional information, recipe/ ingredients of any
    specific media/formulations, raw data where applicable, calculations, photographs, etc.)
    Note: Each of the above item/section should start in a new page
    Grammar and spelling /5
    • Complete, simple sentences with clear/ unambiguous meaning
    • Robust, scientific wordings (no literary phrases, idioms, etc.)
    • Past, passive form to maintain objectivity (particularly in methods), e.g., “the culture was
    incubated at room temperature” rather than “we incubated the culture at room
    temperature” but active voice where possible, e.g., “the temperate increase caused the
    cell death” rather than “the cell death was caused by the temperature increase”.
    • Correct grammar and spelling
    Abstract /5
    • Summarize the research in 1 page maximum.
    • Explain the main problem/s or provide justification of the research, e.g., gaps.
    • Outline the research questions/ formulate logical hypotheses!
    • Briefly describe major methods used and reasons for the selection.
    • Analyse the results and summarize the key findings and future applications
    Introduction /15
    • Background research/ information
    • Literature review – sufficient peer-reviewed research papers cited.
    • Justification/ rationale for your research (e.g., gap in science)
    • Objectives (in point form) and Hypotheses (numbered, e.g., Hypothesis 1)
    • Theory/principles of methods, protocols, etc. (where applicable)
    • Any logical reasoning on your selection of media, organisms, etc. (where applicable) –
    must be brief and must not take the bulk of your introduction.
    • Application of your research/ future perspective
    • Recent research on topics (where applicable)
    Materials and Methods /15
    • Materials list (limit to the major equipment/ supplies)- This could be in a table.
    • Methods explained accurately, clearly and completely (in past, passive form)
    • Avoid description of basic techniques, e.g., media preparation, inoculation, subculturing, aseptic techniques, etc. You must state the activity (e.g., 250 mL of TSA was
    prepared and poured onto 10 plates) but not the details of preparation.
    • If there is a published/ standard method (e.g., Kirby Bauer disk diffusion), you can refer
    to the method and keep the description minimal except for any modifications.
    • If you have designed/developed/ modified a method, provide sufficient details so that it
    can be repeatable by anyone.
    • Protocols/procedures in numbered steps, e.g., 2.2.1. Soxhlet extraction
    • Where appropriate, refer to section number rather than repeating the whole protocols,
    e.g., Disk diffusion was performed as outlined in section 2.2.3
    • Consider logical organisation of methods/ steps (whichever must be performed first,
    • Include diagrams or flow charts where appropriate and be specific for all the
    parameters, e.g., incubation condition, culture density, plating volume, etc.
    • Provide sufficient details for repeatability, e.g., number of trials, sample size, etc.
    Results /20
    • Written introduction to results (a table/ figure should NOT be at the beginning, but
    should have context/introduction in paragraph form)
    • Clear and orderly presentation of data with section numbers. You may organize it
    according to each hypothesis or major iteration or trial.
    • Data should be analysed and presented in graphical output, e.g., tables, charts, graphs,
    • Any of those data representation/ output should be cited in text, e.g., as given in Table
    • Accurate and appropriate titles should be given for tables/ figures so that they stand
    alone (a reader must be able to understand the table/ figure by reading the titles alone).
    • Trials and replicates: Present the summary of results (e.g., mean microbial load over 3
    trials, mean zone of clearance) rather than analysing individually unless you changed
    the protocol for the subsequent trials.
    • Experiments and replicates logically presented. When trials/replicates are minimized or
    scientific standards are violated due to time constraint or reduce effort, cross refer to the
    discussion section. E.g., CFU calculation was based on 1 plate per assay (see Section
    4.2.1 for scientific validity) – But. don’t discuss it in the results.
    • Controls: Provide all controls in detail, e.g., negative control in disk diffusion assay
    doesn’t say what was used. Instead, specify, e.g., 5% DMSO was used as negative
    • Appendices:
    ✓ Necessary enumerations can be given in result section, while additional
    calculations can be moved to appendices.
    ✓ Avoid presenting raw data or calculations but provide those in appendices.
    ✓ Unsatisfactory results, aborted trials, and errors can be reported.
    Discussion and conclusions __/20
    • Hypotheses Testing: show whether you have achieved your objectives. Otherwise,
    discuss the possible reasons including practical errors.
    • Key findings and explanations: critiques on the validity of the data. Address any
    potential inaccuracies in results due to compromised replicates/ trials.
    • Verifications whether these outcomes are in consistent with your primary articles or
    other research papers.
    • Valid and complete comparisons
    • Do not repeat methods, results or simply discuss the theory.
    • Future research, applications and modifications needed.
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