In the context of the Internet of Things (IoT) and cybercrime, it is common practice to erroneously confine the nomenclature of cybersecurity concerns to the description of criminal acts. In this sense, systems are considered an inherent part of cybercrime, and the term “cybercrime” is commonly used to imply traditional criminal acts such as theft, burglary, coercion, and other offenses in which systems are involved (Assiri & Almagwashi, 2018; Azam et al., 2019; Jayasinghe et al., 2021; Obaidat et al., 2012).
The frequency of cyberattacks targeting the Internet of Things (IoT) has become more pertinent in recent times, particularly with the proliferation of smart devices, mobile devices, and sensors. The concept of “IOT cybersecurity attacks” refers to criminal actions targeting the infrastructure of the Internet of Things (IoT). These attacks can occur within any of the three layers of the IOT architecture, namely the perception layer, network layer, and application layer(Abiodun et al., 2021; Burhanuddin et al., 2018; Ezema, 2018; Tyagi et al., 2020).
IoT security concerns, particularly those linked to hackers, and violations, have grown more visible. Concerns over an individual’s right to privacy arise whenever sensitive information is either lost or intercepted, regardless of whether or not the loss or interception was lawful. An act known as an Internet of Things attack is one in which an attacker gains access to the Internet of Things devices without first obtaining authorization to do so. IoT hackers, also known as hacking persons, are computer programmers with an extensive grasp of computers and often use this sophisticated understanding for malicious reasons(Ullah et al., 2019; Zhou et al., 2019).